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Интегрированный урок по истории и английскому языку в 5 классе
«Education in Ancient Egypt»
to create at pupils representation about school in Ancient Egypt;?
on an example of knowledge which were given at school to tell about development of a science;
to open features and complexity of the Egyptian writing, history of its decoding;
to acquaint with features of the Egyptian account and system of measures. Developing:
by leading questions of problem character and the decision of cognitive problems to form logic and historical thinking of pupils;
on an example ancient Egypt and modern schools, Russian and ancient Egypt alphabets, ancient Egypt and modern calendars to form skill to compare the various phenomena;
to learn to transfer an available experience (knowledge from other subject domains) to new situations; to show an opportunity to use the received knowledge for the decision of practical problems.
to help pupils to realize necessity of studying of various school subjects;
to track not passing value of formation as in Ancient Egypt, so presently;
to bring up respect for another's culture.
Materials: small box with image Nephertiti; papyruses; images Egyptian writer, goddesses of writing, the Egyptian temple, an obelisk with hieroglyphs; a fragment of ceramics with a hieroglyph; pure fragments of ceramics for children;? The Egyptian hours
Intersubject communications: foreign language (English, German, French, Spanish), mathematics, Russian, geography, astronomy.
Book: Вигасин А.А., Годер Г.И., Свенцицкая И.С. История древнего мира. – М.: Просвещение, 1993.
Today at a lesson we shall continue studying history of Ancient Egypt. When we say a word? Egypt? What are your associations?
(The teacher shows the small box with image Nephertiti. There are three questions curtailed into a tubule in it). Who is represented on the small box?
Who was she? What was she known? Look! You can see the small box of secrets. About what to us today will tell Nephertiti? We shall get acquainted with ancient Egypt school: we learn, who, to that and as there studied. We learn features of writing, we shall try to decipher, read through and write hieroglyphs, we shall learn to consider and measure distance and time. Also we shall answer tricky questions of Nephertiti.
Pupil: Teachers at schools were priests.
T.: How do you think, for whom prepared at the Egyptian schools?
P.: There prepared for officials-writers (see the image of the writer in the textbook on p. 58). The knowledge of the letter opened access to public service and by the provided life. Today at school children without exception study all. How many years now proceed training? Whether your parents pay for it? In Ancient Egypt term of training was very long and sometimes reached 17 years. Assume, whether all children could study in древнеегипетской in school.
P.: Only children of rich parents there could study. But there was one more very essential difficulty for training.
T.: Remember when you have come to school to that, what actions, you trained first of all?
P.: To read, write and consider. Let's more close get acquainted with ancient Egypt writing. The first signs for the letter were figures.
T.: Whether you how the Egyptian letters referred to know?
P.: Hieroglyphs, what in translation means? The sacred letter . It was very difficult to learn hieroglyphs for the several reasons.
T.: How many letters are there in the Russian alphabet?
T.: Hieroglyphs was more. 750.2. Many words were represented by figures. Assume, as Egyptians could designate following words: The sun, to go, to cry. (Pupils on a board draw possible hieroglyphs for a designation of these words). Think, whether such way of the image was always convenient? How, for example, to write down a phrase? I respect with you?
3. Some figures could designate both words, and separate sounds. For example: the image of the closed mouth? It and a word? A mouth? And a sound р; the image of the house? It and a word ”house”, and a combination ”dm”.
4.In the Egyptian letter there were no vowel letters. Let's think, than it was inconvenient. For example, we have a hieroglyph “Sl” What does it meam? (village, bacon, force, a donkey, if, villages, solo).
5. It could be the badge-determinant which was not read but only prompted about what there is a speech. For example, the hieroglyph reminding a hole with water (the hieroglyph generates on a board), designated a word in one case? A well?, in other? A combination of two consonants “хm”, and in the third same sign it was not read, and only prompted, that speech in the text goes about water - ponds, bogs, etc.
T.: So why was so difficultly to study at the Egyptian school?
P.: It is a lot of hieroglyphs, they are complex for learning.
T.: Where it is possible to meet the inscriptions made by hieroglyphs?
P.: On the walls of pyramids, on obelisks, in temples. By hieroglyphs it is written Egyptian “The book dead” (see the textbook, p. 52-53).
Long time nobody could solve secret of hieroglyphs and read the Egyptian texts. T.: Why was so difficultly to decipher the Egyptian writing?
P.: The same hieroglyph could designate both a sound, and the whole word, and to be a determinant-help.
T.: Only in the beginning of XIX century this secret has been opened by French scientist Francois Shampolon. In 1799 the French soldiers under command of Napoleon have landed in Egypt and about city of the Resette have found a huge stone plate with an inscription in two languages: Greek and Egyptian. Under the order of Napoleon this plate have transported to France. Many scientists tried to solve these inscriptions, but unsuccessfully. It was possible to make Francois Shampolon only in 23 years after this plate has been found. How Francois Shampolon read the Egyptian inscriptions? Let's do that way on which there was a great scientist. It has assumed, that the hieroglyphs concluded in a framework (so-called kartush), mean a name of any pharaon (see Picture 1). The expert on many classic languages, Shampolon has established, what last two signs mean a sound “S”. It also knew a previous hieroglyph? It was a sound “M”. It was necessary to solve the very first badge.
T.: What does it mean?
T.: Remember, how the god of the Sun was called by the Egyptians?
T.: What turns out? What name of the pharaon reminds you this word?
Then Shampolon has passed to decoding other inscription (see Picture 2). The first sign represented a bird “ Ibis”, and to other two it were already familiar (“M” and “S”).
T.: Who from the Egyptian gods was represented in the form of “Ibis”
P.: The God Tot.
T.: What name of the pharaon reminds you the turned out word?
T.:What knowledge have helped Francois Shampolon to decipher the Egyptian writing?
P.: Knowledge of foreign languages. Importance of their studying!
T.: What it is necessary to have to write down?
P.: The material for the letter and writing-materials is necessary.
T.: Nephertiti offers you a question from her small box. In many languages the words designating a paper, sound is similar. For example, in German “paper”(папир)- (papier), in English (пейпе)-paper, in French ( папьё)-papier, in Spanish (папель)-papel. Apparently, such similarity is not casual: all these words single-root also occur from the same ancient words. What it for a word?
As the basic material for the letter the papyrus served. The papyrus is a fragile material, it is impossible to put it how there are sheets in the modern book. Assume, as could store ancient papyruses. As though you did it, being on a place of ancient Egyptians? Sheets of the papyrus stuck together in long strips which then turned off in tubes, and rolls turned out. Up to now many rolls with the records are has reached, one of them reaches length of 40 meters. The length of your class is 8 meters, means, the papyrus about which there is a speech, in 5 times more lengths of a class! The papyrus was length about a corridor! Because of dearness of papyruses often schoolboys studied to write on fragments of ceramics (it is possible to show an inscription hieroglyphs on a fragment of ceramics).
Writing was so important for ancient Egyptians, that there even there was a goddess of writing. Писцы borrowed high position at a court yard of the pharaon (see the image of the writer on p. 58 of the textbook). Not casually in? Lecture писцов to pupils? It was spoken:”Be a writer? It is released from any duties, from work as a pick and a mattock. You will not drag baskets, will not be hewed with rods. Be a writer that your body was smooth and your hand soft”. And now Nephertiti offers us a question # 2. In Ancient Egypt the grandees borrowed high position at a court yard of the pharaon, often demanded, that artists and sculptors represented them with writing-materials. They ordered the statues representing them in a pose of a writer for the tombs. How do you think, what for they did it? P.: Notable grandees and even sons of the pharaon were proud of the erudition. They wanted, that all knew, that they are able to write.
T.: Why competent Egyptians, unlike people of our time, were proud of what are able to read and write?
P.: It was very difficult to seize the Egyptian writing.
3. Mathematical knowledge.
T.: As you think, in that else trained at the Egyptian school, except for the letter? P.: Account.
T.: On what subject you now study to consider?
T.: When we consider, what question we answer?
P.: How many?
T.: What groups of the population were in Ancient Egypt
P.: The pharaon, grandees, soldiers, farmers, handicraftsmen, slaves. Let's think, who from them had to answer this question.
1. Present a facilities of any temple. Under palm trees in white clothes there is a priest. It observes of work of farmers and about itself calculates: “Slaves and peasants have collected from the fields belonging a temple, 400 bags of wheat. 20 bags need to be left for livelihood to priests, 80 bags? On a forage to bulls, 40 bags? On a soup to slaves, 20 bags? On seeds for crop. How many bags remains?” T.: Let's help priest and we shall solve this problem
(2-3 pupils on cards are offered)
P.: Number of stone plates, number of slaves, number of years during which the pyramid will be constructed.
T.: Who conducted these calculations?
P.: Grandees who supervised over works.
3. What calculations were conducted by the Egyptian military leaders when the army acted in the approach?
P.: Quantity of soldiers, the weapon, quantity of days for military campaigns, a stock of meal, water, etc.
4. What calculations should be conducted to farmers?
P.: How many it is necessary to hand over grains in the form of the tax, how many to leave on seeds, on meal, on a forage to bulls.
T.: Let's check up the decision of a problem
P.: There will be 240 bags of grain, they can be sold and gained money.
T.: We shall sum up: to consider it was necessary to all. What science has arisen from this knowledge?
P.: Arithmetics. It is one of sections of mathematics. All needed to be written down the received calculations. Egyptians used for this purpose special signs.
2000 500 30 2
Tasks for working off of record of numbers by means of the Egyptian figures:
1. Write down ancient Egypt signs number 1148 (who will make the first, writes it on a board),
2. Write down numbers by variants: 1 variant? 416, 2 variant? 324 (simultaneously 2 pupils work for a board),
3. Write down any three-value number (who will make the first, writes this number on a board, and the others should guess it).
T.: Than this system of record is complex and inconvenient?
P.: It is too bulky.
T.: Other science which too has arisen in Ancient Egypt- Geometry. This word by origin Greek, it consists of two words:”gео” means ground and “metros” means to measure. How we shall translate a word ”Geometry” ?
P.: Measurement of the ground.
Let's think, who in Ancient Egypt had to measure often the ground?
P.: After flood of Nile it was necessary for Egyptians to restore borders between sites of the ground which were washed away with water to clear dams, channels. Restoring these borders, peasants annually measured the ground. Officials were engaged in the same also? But for what? -to define the size of the tax from each site.
T.: Where measurements and calculations were still necessary? People of what trade could not do without knowledge of geometry? Recollect constructions of Egyptians.
P.: The construction of a pyramid it was necessary the nobility its height, length of the basis, to be able to build right angles.
T.: How Egyptians did measurements? The Egyptian system of measures has been based on proportions of a human body. The main unit of measure was an elbow? The size equal to distance from an elbow up to tips of fingers. Let's find at itself on hands this size. A following unit of measure? The palm, it consisted of 4 fingers. Let's draw the Egyptian ruler.
(the stage-by-stage drawing with use of leading questions is done: How many in one elbow of palms? How many fingers in a palm? How many fingers in an elbow etc.)
Tasks: - measure length and width of the school desk (in elbows and palms); the textbook (in palms); the handle (in fingers).
T.: Except for distances, Egyptians were able to measure time. Observing of the night sky, defining movement of heavenly bodies, Egyptians have made an exact calendar and could predict, in what day there will be a flood of Nile. We can speak about development of what science on the basis of this fact?
P.: Astronomies. They the first have counted up quantity of days in a year, have divided them into months, and months? For weeks. Let's look, that represented the Egyptian year: 10 days = 1 week, 3 weeks = 1 months, 4 months = 1 seasons, 3 seasons = 360 days of 5 sacred days. Birthdays Осириса, Исиды, Сета, Неффис and Chorus were considered as five sacred days? The major Egyptian gods. These days, and also days of other religious holidays, were considered as days off. Each tenth day finished the Egyptian week as was the day off. Besides there were days favorable and adverse. For example, in some days it was forbidden to kill bulls. In other days it was impossible to begin construction of the house, to bathe and in general to come nearer to Nile.
The task: compare ancient Egypt calendar with modern (the tablet is filled during collective work)
Egyptians have calculated, that in day 24 hours, have divided them per day and night for 12 hours. And, certainly, it was necessary for them to measure time. How we now measure time?
P.: By means of hours.
T.: Ancient Egyptians too had hours in the form of a vessel on which walls the marks corresponding hours have been put. And have been below done holes. Guess, as on these hours it was possible to learn time. Possible leading questions: For what are necessary holes?
P.: From them could something get enough sleep or pour out. Children can assume, that it was a sand-glass. The help: hours referred to water. (water followed from a vessel with the certain speed. In process of decrease in a water level defined time on marks on walls of a vessel).
And Nephertiti in the meantime asks to us a question #3.
T.:What popular expressions are in Russian in which current time is mentioned.
P.: “Как быстро течет время” (а когда время течет быстро? – когда мы занимаемся любимым делом, делаем то, что нам нравится; “Сколько воды с тех пор утекло”, “С течением времени”
T.: What kinds of clocks to you are still known?
P.: Sand, solar, mechanical, electronic.
5. The contribution of Egyptians to world culture
Let's sum up: what achievements of ancient Egyptians we use till now? (
P.: The Calendar, knowledge from area of mathematics and astronomy. Thank to the invention of the papyrus and the Egyptian writing of knowledge of ancient Egyptians were kept up to now.
Homework: 1. Using? 12 textbooks and the story of the teacher at a lesson, make the story about ancient Egypt school;
2. Compare ancient Egypt school with modern: Features of similarity of Feature of difference.
Tasks for interested persons:
1. Write down by means of the Egyptian figures year of the birth.
2. Using the Egyptian linear measures, measure subjects of the furniture (a desk, a chair, a bed, a computer).
3. Write out, what words can designate hieroglyphs of DM and СН.
4. Think up the hieroglyph which could designate and a separate word, and serve as a sign-determinant. Write down this hieroglyph on a slice of ceramics.
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